Students in this concentration study Jewish history, culture, and literature from antiquity until the present. Students are trained in theoretical approaches such as literary and cultural criticism as well as historical and sociological analysis. Students acquire general competence in the history of Judaism from late antiquity to the present. Resources are particularly strong for study in rabbinics, medieval Jewish history, Jewish-Christian interactions, and Eastern European Jewish literature and culture. Students may focus on themes such as language, translation, secularization, gender, and sexuality. Advanced research in Jewish studies requires near-fluency in Hebrew and familiarity with major trends in Jewish history and literature.